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Die sechsköpfige Besatzung eines im Raum treibenden Raumschiffes ist ohne Erinnerung aus einer langen Stasis erwacht. Sie müssen schnell zusammenarbeiten. Dark Matter ist eine kanadische Science-Fiction-Fernsehserie, die am Juni ihre Premiere bei den Sendern Space und Syfy hatte. Schon drei Tage. Dark Matter: Basierend auf der gleichnamigen Graphic Novel von Joseph Mallozzi und Paul Mullie handelt die Serie „Dark Matter“ von der sechsköpfigen . Mit Episode Six erforscht Dark Matter eine komplette Episode lang die Hintergrundgeschichten seiner Figuren. Dabei geht Five (Jodelle Ferland) auf. DarkMatter LLC | Follower auf LinkedIn | Enabling Smart and Safe Digital | The DarkMatter Group exists to enable businesses and governments to.

Darkmatter

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Or, perhaps the laws of gravity that have thus far successfully described the motion of objects within the solar system require revision.

Scientists calculate the mass of large objects in space by studying their motion. Astronomers examining spiral galaxies in the s expected to see material in the center moving faster than on the outer edges.

Instead, they found the stars in both locations traveled at the same velocity, indicating the galaxies contained more mass than could be seen.

Studies of the gas within elliptical galaxies also indicated a need for more mass than found in visible objects. Clusters of galaxies would fly apart if the only mass they contained were visible to conventional astronomical measurements.

Albert Einstein showed that massive objects in the universe bend and distort light, allowing them to be used as lenses. By studying how light is distorted by galaxy clusters, astronomers have been able to create a map of dark matter in the universe.

All of these methods provide a strong indication that most of the matter in the universe is something yet unseen. Although dark matter is different from ordinary matter, there are a number of experiments working to detect the unusual material.

But at this moment, we still need more data to make sure it is from dark matter and not from some strange astrophysics sources," Ting said. The lab recently released the first results of the experiment.

But so far, the instrument hasn't revealed the mysterious matter. IceCube Neutrino Observatory , an experiment buried under Antarctica's ice, is hunting for sterile neutrinos.

Sterile neutrinos only interact with regular matter through gravity, making it a strong candidate for dark matter.

Other instruments are hunting for the effects of dark matter. The European Space Agency's Planck spacecraft has been building a map of the universe since it was launched in The Intercept.

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Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Episodes Seasons. Five 39 episodes, Roger Cross Six 39 episodes, Zoie Palmer Learn more More Like This.

Continuum I — Action Sci-Fi Thriller. Defiance — Action Drama Sci-Fi. Killjoys — Action Adventure Sci-Fi. Falling Skies — Action Adventure Drama.

Warehouse 13 — Drama Mystery Sci-Fi. Sanctuary — Action Drama Fantasy. Travelers — Alphas — Stargate: Atlantis — Revolution — Stargate Universe — Drama Sci-Fi.

Terra Nova Adventure Drama Mystery. Edit Storyline The six-person crew of a derelict spaceship awakens from stasis in the farthest reaches of space.

Edit Did You Know? Trivia The cast is credited at the beginning of each episode according to their "number.

Goofs In scenes wherein the sky is visible, often constellations appear as they would from Earth. The most obvious example is an episode wherein the constellation 'Orion' is visible.

Crazy Credits In most of the later episodes Melissa O'Neil 's name appears onscreen with her character depicted onscreen behind it. Was this review helpful to you?

Yes No Report this. Add the first question. Country: Canada. Language: English. Filming Locations: Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Runtime: 42 min.

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For example, the Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed in the Bullet cluster , which consists of two merging galaxy clusters, that the hot gas ordinary visible matter is slowed by the drag effect of one cluster passing through the other.

The mass of the clusters, however, is not affected, indicating that most of the mass consists of dark matter. Matter is Only 0.

The rest is dark matter. Two varieties of dark matter have been found to exist. The first variety is about 4. Most of this baryonic dark matter is expected to exist in the form of gas in and between the galaxies.

This baryonic, or ordinary, component of dark matter has been determined by measuring the abundance of elements heavier than hydrogen that were created in the first few minutes after the big bang occurred The dark matter that comprises the other The absence of light from these particles also indicates that they are electromagnetically neutral.

The precise nature of these particles is not currently known, and they are not predicted by the standard model of particle physics.

However, a number of possible extensions to the standard model such as supersymmetric theories predict hypothetical elementary particles such as axions or neutralinos that may be the undetected WIMPs.

Extraordinary efforts are under way to detect and measure the properties of these unseen WIMPs, either by witnessing their impact in a laboratory detector or by observing their annihilations after they collide with each other.

There is also some expectation that their presence and mass may be inferred from experiments at new particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider.

However, most of the proposals are unsatisfactory on theoretical grounds as they provide little or no explanation for the modification of gravity.

These theories are also unable to explain the observations of dark matter physically separated from ordinary matter in the Bullet cluster.

This separation demonstrates that dark matter is a physical reality and is distinguishable from ordinary matter. Dark matter. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Home Science Astronomy. Baryon acoustic oscillations BAO are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter normal matter of the universe on large scales.

These are predicted to arise in the Lambda-CDM model due to acoustic oscillations in the photon—baryon fluid of the early universe, and can be observed in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum.

BAOs set up a preferred length scale for baryons. This feature was predicted theoretically in the s and then discovered in , in two large galaxy redshift surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

Large galaxy redshift surveys may be used to make a three-dimensional map of the galaxy distribution. These maps are slightly distorted because distances are estimated from observed redshifts ; the redshift contains a contribution from the galaxy's so-called peculiar velocity in addition to the dominant Hubble expansion term.

On average, superclusters are expanding more slowly than the cosmic mean due to their gravity, while voids are expanding faster than average.

In a redshift map, galaxies in front of a supercluster have excess radial velocities towards it and have redshifts slightly higher than their distance would imply, while galaxies behind the supercluster have redshifts slightly low for their distance.

This effect causes superclusters to appear squashed in the radial direction, and likewise voids are stretched.

Their angular positions are unaffected. This effect is not detectable for any one structure since the true shape is not known, but can be measured by averaging over many structures.

It was predicted quantitatively by Nick Kaiser in , and first decisively measured in by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

In astronomical spectroscopy , the Lyman-alpha forest is the sum of the absorption lines arising from the Lyman-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars.

Lyman-alpha forest observations can also constrain cosmological models. There are various hypotheses about what dark matter could consist of, as set out in the table below.

Dark matter can refer to any substance which interacts predominantly via gravity with visible matter e.

Hence in principle it need not be composed of a new type of fundamental particle but could, at least in part, be made up of standard baryonic matter, such as protons or neutrons.

Baryons protons and neutrons make up ordinary stars and planets. However, baryonic matter also encompasses less common non-primordial black holes , neutron stars , faint old white dwarfs and brown dwarfs , collectively known as massive compact halo objects MACHOs , which can be hard to detect.

Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter are hypothetical particles such as axions , sterile neutrinos , weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs , gravitationally-interacting massive particles GIMPs , supersymmetric particles, or primordial black holes.

Unlike baryonic matter, nonbaryonic matter did not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe Big Bang nucleosynthesis [13] and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational effects, or weak lensing.

In addition, if the particles of which it is composed are supersymmetric, they can undergo annihilation interactions with themselves, possibly resulting in observable by-products such as gamma rays and neutrinos indirect detection.

If dark matter is composed of weakly-interacting particles, an obvious question is whether it can form objects equivalent to planets , stars , or black holes.

Historically, the answer has been it cannot, [99] [] because of two factors:. In — the idea dense dark matter was composed of primordial black holes , made a comeback [] following results of gravitational wave measurements which detected the merger of intermediate mass black holes.

It was proposed the intermediate mass black holes causing the detected merger formed in the hot dense early phase of the universe due to denser regions collapsing.

A later survey of about a thousand supernova detected no gravitational lensing events, when about eight would be expected if intermediate mass primordial black holes above a certain mass range accounted for the majority of dark matter.

Tiny black holes are theorized to emit Hawking radiation. However the detected fluxes were too low and did not have the expected energy spectrum suggesting tiny primordial black holes are not widespread enough to account for dark matter.

In , the lack of microlensing effects in the observation of Andromeda suggests tiny black holes do not exist. However, there still exists a largely unconstrained mass range smaller than that can be limited by optical microlensing observations, where primordial black holes may account for all dark matter.

Dark matter can be divided into cold , warm , and hot categories. Primordial density fluctuations smaller than this length get washed out as particles spread from overdense to underdense regions, while larger fluctuations are unaffected; therefore this length sets a minimum scale for later structure formation.

The categories are set with respect to the size of a protogalaxy an object that later evolves into a dwarf galaxy : Dark matter particles are classified as cold, warm, or hot according to their FSL; much smaller cold , similar to warm , or much larger hot than a protogalaxy.

Cold dark matter leads to a bottom-up formation of structure with galaxies forming first and galaxy clusters at a latter stage, while hot dark matter would result in a top-down formation scenario with large matter aggregations forming early, later fragmenting into separate galaxies; [ clarification needed ] the latter is excluded by high-redshift galaxy observations.

These categories also correspond to fluctuation spectrum effects and the interval following the Big Bang at which each type became non-relativistic.

Davis et al. Candidate particles can be grouped into three categories on the basis of their effect on the fluctuation spectrum Bond et al.

If the dark matter is composed of abundant light particles which remain relativistic until shortly before recombination, then it may be termed "hot".

The best candidate for hot dark matter is a neutrino Such particles are termed "warm dark matter", because they have lower thermal velocities than massive neutrinos Any particles which became nonrelativistic very early, and so were able to diffuse a negligible distance, are termed "cold" dark matter CDM.

There are many candidates for CDM including supersymmetric particles. The 2. Conversely, much lighter particles, such as neutrinos with masses of only a few eV, have FSLs much larger than a protogalaxy, thus qualifying them as hot.

Cold dark matter offers the simplest explanation for most cosmological observations. It is dark matter composed of constituents with an FSL much smaller than a protogalaxy.

This is the focus for dark matter research, as hot dark matter does not seem capable of supporting galaxy or galaxy cluster formation, and most particle candidates slowed early.

The constituents of cold dark matter are unknown. Studies of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing convinced most cosmologists [14] [] [] [] [] [] that MACHOs [] [] cannot make up more than a small fraction of dark matter.

Peter: " Warm dark matter comprises particles with an FSL comparable to the size of a protogalaxy. Predictions based on warm dark matter are similar to those for cold dark matter on large scales, but with less small-scale density perturbations.

This reduces the predicted abundance of dwarf galaxies and may lead to lower density of dark matter in the central parts of large galaxies. Some researchers consider this a better fit to observations.

No known particles can be categorized as warm dark matter. A postulated candidate is the sterile neutrino : A heavier, slower form of neutrino that does not interact through the weak force , unlike other neutrinos.

Some modified gravity theories, such as scalar—tensor—vector gravity , require "warm" dark matter to make their equations work.

Hot dark matter consists of particles whose FSL is much larger than the size of a protogalaxy. The neutrino qualifies as such particle.

They were discovered independently, long before the hunt for dark matter: they were postulated in , and detected in Neutrinos interact with normal matter only via gravity and the weak force , making them difficult to detect the weak force only works over a small distance, thus a neutrino triggers a weak force event only if it hits a nucleus head-on.

The three known flavours of neutrinos are the electron , muon , and tau. Their masses are slightly different. Neutrinos oscillate among the flavours as they move.

It is hard to determine an exact upper bound on the collective average mass of the three neutrinos or for any of the three individually. CMB data and other methods indicate that their average mass probably does not exceed 0.

Thus, observed neutrinos cannot explain dark matter. Because galaxy-size density fluctuations get washed out by free-streaming, hot dark matter implies the first objects that can form are huge supercluster -size pancakes, which then fragment into galaxies.

Deep-field observations show instead that galaxies formed first, followed by clusters and superclusters as galaxies clump together.

If dark matter is made up of sub-atomic particles, then millions, possibly billions, of such particles must pass through every square centimeter of the Earth each second.

Another candidate is heavy hidden sector particles which only interact with ordinary matter via gravity. These experiments can be divided into two classes: direct detection experiments, which search for the scattering of dark matter particles off atomic nuclei within a detector; and indirect detection, which look for the products of dark matter particle annihilations or decays.

Direct detection experiments aim to observe low-energy recoils typically a few keVs of nuclei induced by interactions with particles of dark matter, which in theory are passing through the Earth.

After such a recoil the nucleus will emit energy in the form of scintillation light or phonons , as they pass through sensitive detection apparatus.

To do this effectively, it is crucial to maintain a low background, and so such experiments operate deep underground to reduce the interference from cosmic rays.

These experiments mostly use either cryogenic or noble liquid detector technologies. Noble liquid detectors detect scintillation produced by a particle collision in liquid xenon or argon.

Both of these techniques focus strongly on their ability to distinguish background particles which predominantly scatter off electrons from dark matter particles that scatter off nuclei.

Currently there has been no well-established claim of dark matter detection from a direct detection experiment, leading instead to strong upper limits on the mass and interaction cross section with nucleons of such dark matter particles.

This results from the expectation that as the Earth orbits the Sun, the velocity of the detector relative to the dark matter halo will vary by a small amount.

A special case of direct detection experiments covers those with directional sensitivity. This is a search strategy based on the motion of the Solar System around the Galactic Center.

WIMPs coming from the direction in which the Sun travels approximately towards Cygnus may then be separated from background, which should be isotropic.

Indirect detection experiments search for the products of the self-annihilation or decay of dark matter particles in outer space.

For example, in regions of high dark matter density e. These processes could be detected indirectly through an excess of gamma rays, antiprotons or positrons emanating from high density regions in our galaxy or others.

A few of the dark matter particles passing through the Sun or Earth may scatter off atoms and lose energy. This could produce a distinctive signal in the form of high-energy neutrinos.

Many experimental searches have been undertaken to look for such emission from dark matter annihilation or decay, examples of which follow.

The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope observed more gamma rays in than expected from the Milky Way , but scientists concluded this was most likely due to incorrect estimation of the telescope's sensitivity.

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is searching for similar gamma rays. At higher energies, ground-based gamma-ray telescopes have set limits on the annihilation of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies [] and in clusters of galaxies.

They could be from dark matter annihilation or from pulsars. No excess antiprotons were observed. In results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station indicated excess high-energy cosmic rays which could be due to dark matter annihilation.

An alternative approach to the detection of dark matter particles in nature is to produce them in a laboratory. Because a dark matter particle should have negligible interactions with normal visible matter, it may be detected indirectly as large amounts of missing energy and momentum that escape the detectors, provided other non-negligible collision products are detected.

Because dark matter has not yet been conclusively identified, many other hypotheses have emerged aiming to explain the observational phenomena that dark matter was conceived to explain.

The most common method is to modify general relativity. General relativity is well-tested on solar system scales, but its validity on galactic or cosmological scales has not been well proven.

A suitable modification to general relativity can conceivably eliminate the need for dark matter. The best-known theories of this class are MOND and its relativistic generalization tensor-vector-scalar gravity TeVeS , [] f R gravity , [] negative mass dark fluid , [] [] [] and entropic gravity.

A problem with alternative hypotheses is observational evidence for dark matter comes from so many independent approaches see the "observational evidence" section above.

Explaining any individual observation is possible but explaining all of them is very difficult. Nonetheless, there have been some scattered successes for alternative hypotheses, such as a test of gravitational lensing in entropic gravity.

The prevailing opinion among most astrophysicists is while modifications to general relativity can conceivably explain part of the observational evidence, there is probably enough data to conclude there must be some form of dark matter.

Mention of dark matter is made in works of fiction. In such cases, it is usually attributed extraordinary physical or magical properties. Such descriptions are often inconsistent with the hypothesized properties of dark matter in physics and cosmology.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with antimatter , dark energy , dark fluid , or dark flow. For other uses, see Dark matter disambiguation.

Hypothetical form of matter comprising most of the matter in the universe. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into hadron jets and electrons.

Quantum gravity. String theory Loop quantum gravity Loop quantum cosmology Causal dynamical triangulation Causal fermion systems Causal sets Event symmetry Canonical quantum gravity Superfluid vacuum theory.

See also: Friedmann equations. Play media. Main article: Galaxy rotation curve. Main article: Velocity dispersion. Main article: Cosmic microwave background.

Main article: Structure formation. Main article: Bullet Cluster. Main articles: Type Ia supernova and Shape of the universe.

Main article: Baryon acoustic oscillations. Main article: Lyman-alpha forest. Not to be confused with Missing baryon problem. Davis, G. Efstathiou, C.

Frenk, and S. White, The evolution of large-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold dark matter.

Main article: Cold dark matter. Main article: Warm dark matter. Main article: Hot dark matter. Further information: Alternatives to general relativity.

Main article: Dark matter in fiction. See Baryonic dark matter. It is basically the same except that dark energy might depend on scale factor in some unknown way rather than necessarily being constant.

Strictly speaking, electrons are leptons not baryons ; but since their number is equal to the protons while their mass is far smaller, electrons give a negligible contribution to the average density of baryonic matter.

Baryonic matter excludes other known particles such as photons and neutrinos. Hypothetical primordial black holes are also generally defined as non-baryonic, since they would have formed from radiation, not matter.

CERN Physics. The Dallas Morning News. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Planck Collaboration 22 March Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Ars Technica. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 21 March Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The dark side of the universe.

The Teaching Company. Hidden cosmos. National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 10 June Astrophysical Journal Supplement.

Bibcode : ApJS.. Bibcode : Sci Physics Reports. Bibcode : PhR Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Nature Astronomy. Bibcode : NatAs London, England: C.

Clay and Sons. From p. Retrieved 8 February Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ It is incidentally suggested when the theory is perfected it may be possible to determine the amount of dark matter from its gravitational effect.

Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of the Netherlands. Bibcode : BAN Imagine the Universe! July Helvetica Physica Acta. Bibcode : AcHPh The Astrophysical Journal.

The cosmic cocktail: Three parts dark matter. Princeton University Press. Lick Observatory Bulletin. Bibcode : LicOB.. April June The New York Times.

Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 6 August Kent, Jr. February The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in spiral galaxies of various morphological types PhD Thesis.

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. May October Seth September Reports on Progress in Physics. Bibcode : RPPh Mathematical Tripos.

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